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2020 Annual Report

150 Years of Continental

2020 Annual Report


Material Risks

1 2 3 4 5

The order of the risk categories and individual risks presented within the four risk groups reflects the current assessment of the relative risk exposure for Continental and thus provides an indication of the current significance of these risks. If no quantitative information on the amount of damage is provided, the assessment is carried out on the basis of qualitative criteria. Unless the emphasis is placed on a specific business area, the risks apply to all business areas.

Financial Risks

Continental is exposed to risks in connection with its financing agreements and the syndicated loans.
Continental is subject to risks in connection with its financing agreements. Risks arise from the bonds that Continental AG and Conti-Gummi-Finance B.V., Maastricht, Netherlands, have issued as part of the Debt Issuance Programme (DIP). These financing agreements contain covenants that could limit Continental’s capacity to take action as well as change-of-control provisions.

In order to finance its current business activities as well as its investments and payment obligations, Continental concluded a syndicated loan agreement in December 2019, recently updated in November 2020, from which risks may arise. Under the terms of the syndicated loan agreement, the lenders have the right to demand repayment of the loan in the event of a change of control at Continental AG.

The requirements for and consequences of a change in control in accordance with the terms of the bonds or the syndicated loan agreement are described in detail in the Additional Disclosures and Notes Pursuant to Section 289a and Section 315a HGB section on pages 96 and 97. The loans and bonds cited here could also immediately become due and payable if other financing agreements of more than €75.0 million are not repaid on time or are prematurely called for repayment.

The committed volume of the syndicated loan consists of a revolving tranche of €4.0 billion (due in December 2025). This had not been utilized as at the end of fiscal 2020. In addition to the existing syndicated loan, a further syndicated loan in the amount of €3.0 billion was agreed in May 2020. The new credit line is intended to strengthen Continental’s financial flexibility in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and therefore has a short term of 364 days. This credit line can only be used by Continental AG and had not been utilized as at December 31, 2020. The loan agreement is based on the agreement for the existing syndicated loan of €4.0 billion.

Continental is exposed to risks associated with changes in currency exchange rates and hedging.
Continental operates worldwide and is therefore exposed to financial risks that arise from changes in exchange rates. This could result in losses if assets denominated in currencies with a falling exchange rate lose value and/or liabilities denominated in currencies with a rising exchange rate appreciate. In addition, fluctuations in exchange rates could intensify or reduce fluctuations in the prices of raw materials in euros, as Continental sources a considerable portion of its raw materials in foreign currency. As a result of these factors, fluctuations in exchange rates can influence Continental’s earnings situation.

External and internal transactions involving the delivery of products and services to third parties and companies of the Continental Group can result in cash inflows and outflows that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the respective subsidiary of the Continental Group (transaction risk). To the extent that cash outflows of the respective subsidiary of the Continental Group in any one foreign currency are not offset by cash flows resulting from operational business in the same currency, the remaining net exchange-rate risk is hedged against on a case-by-case basis using the appropriate derivative instruments, particularly currency forwards, currency swaps and currency options with a term of up to 12 months.

Moreover, Continental is exposed to exchange-rate risks arising from external and internal loan agreements that result in cash inflows and outflows denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the respective subsidiary of the Continental Group. These exchange-rate risks are in general hedged against by using appropriate derivative instruments, particularly currency forwards, currency swaps and cross-currency interest-rate swaps. Any hedging transactions executed in the form of derivative instruments can result in losses. In addition, a number of Continental’s consolidated companies report their results in currencies other than the euro, which requires Continental to convert the relevant items into euros when preparing Continental’s consolidated financial statements (translation risk). Translation risks are generally not hedged.

In order to quantify the possible effects of transaction-related exchange- rate risks from financial instruments on the earnings position of the Continental Group, transaction currencies with a significant exchange-rate risk within the next 12 months are identified based on current net exposure. If the exchange rates of these currencies all develop disadvantageously for Continental at the same time, then the hypothetical negative effect on the Continental Group’s earnings position, calculated based on a 10% change in the current closing rate, would amount to between €400 million and €500 million.

Continental is exposed to default risks in connection with cash and cash equivalents, derivative instruments and interestbearing investments.
In order to minimize the default risk for cash and cash equivalents, derivative instruments and interest-bearing investments, Continental generally uses banks that it has classified as core banks on the basis of defined criteria. As a general rule, these banks should have at least one investment-grade credit rating from one of the global rating agencies. The default risk can therefore be considered very low. The creditworthiness of the core banks – and of other banks with which investments are made, loans are granted or derivative instruments are traded in derogation from the core bank principle for operational or regulatory reasons – is continuously monitored. Not only the credit ratings but also in particular the premiums for insuring against credit default risks (credit default swaps, CDSs) are monitored, provided this information is available. In addition, Continental sets investment limits for each bank and trading limits for derivative instruments. The amount of these limits is based on the creditworthiness of the respective bank. Compliance with these limits is continuously monitored. Within the internally defined risk groups, cash and cash equivalents, interest-bearing investments and positive (net) fair values of derivative instruments held at banks assigned to a higher risk group range from €100 million to €200 million.

Risks Related to the Markets in Which Continental Operates

Continental could be exposed to material risks in connection with a global financial and economic crisis.
Continental generates a large percentage (69%) of its sales from automobile manufacturers (original equipment manufacturers, OEMs). The remainder of Continental’s sales is generated from the replacement or industrial markets, mainly in the replacement markets for passenger-car and truck tires, and to a lesser extent in the non-automotive end markets of the other business areas.

The automotive markets in Europe and North America in particular are currently developing much more weakly than in the past, while also displaying increasing volatility and uncertainty. If this prolonged market weakness continues or is intensified by a general economic downturn, it would likely further adversely affect Continental’s sales and earnings.

In the year under review, Continental’s five largest OEM customers (Daimler, Fiat-Chrysler, Ford, Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi and VW) generated approximately 37% of sales. If one or more of Continental’s OEM customers is lost or terminates a supply contract prematurely, the original investments made by Continental to provide such products or outstanding claims against such customers could be wholly or partially lost.

Moreover, Continental generated 48% of its 2020 total sales in Europe and 18% in Germany alone. By comparison, 25% of Continental’s total sales in 2020 were generated in North America, 24% in Asia, and 3% in other countries. Therefore, in the event of an economic downturn in Europe, particularly in Germany, for example, Continental’s business and earnings situation could be affected more extensively than that of its competitors. Furthermore, the automotive and tire markets in Europe and North America are largely saturated. To minimize this dependence, Continental is striving to improve the regional sales balance, particularly by generating more sales in emerging markets and especially in Asia.

Based on a scenario analysis that assumes market stagnation in 2021, and taking into account restructuring measures required as a result, we anticipate a decline of around 2 percentage points in the adjusted EBIT margin.

Continental could be severely affected by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic over a longer period.
Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the associated measures to tackle this worldwide, as well as the significant restrictions on production both at the Continental Group and at its customers and suppliers, there is a risk of significant and long-term negative effects on the Continental Group’s sales and procurement markets. This would have a considerable negative impact on the availability of raw materials and components as well as Continental’s sales volumes both in the OEM business and in the industrial and replacement business. The duration of the general economic downturn as well as its effects on global supply chains and Continental’s various business units will largely depend on the success of containment measures as well as the effectiveness of corresponding relief packages and fiscal stimulus measures. While Continental has already introduced measures aimed, for example, at improving its cost structure and ensuring supply chains, there is generally a risk of considerable and long-term negative effects on Continental’s earnings, financial and net assets position.

Continental operates in a cyclical industry.
Global production of vehicles and, as a result, sales to OEMs (from whom Continental currently generates 69% of its sales) are subjected to major fluctuations in some cases. They depend, among other things, on general economic conditions, disposable income and household consumer spending and preferences, which can be affected by a number of factors, including fuel costs as well as the availability and cost of consumer financing. As the volume of automotive production fluctuates, the demand for Continental’s products also fluctuates, as OEMs generally do not commit to purchasing minimum quantities from their suppliers or to fixed prices. It is difficult to predict future developments in the markets Continental serves, which also makes it harder to estimate the requirements for production capacity. As Continental’s business is characterized by high fixed costs, it is thus exposed to the risk that fixed costs are not fully covered in the event of falling demand and the resulting underutilization of its facilities (particularly in Automotive Technologies and Powertrain Technologies). Conversely, should the markets in which Continental operates once again grow faster than anticipated, there could be insufficient capacity to meet customer demand. To reduce the impact of the potential risk resulting from this dependence on the automotive industry, Continental is strengthening its replacement business and industrial business, including by means of acquisitions.

Continental is exposed to risks associated with the market trends and developments that may greatly affect the demand for Continental’s products and systems.
Continental currently generates 69% of its sales from OEMs, mainly in Automotive Technologies and Powertrain Technologies. Global production of vehicles and, as a result, business with OEM customers are currently subject to a number of market trends and technological developments that may greatly affect the mix of products and systems sold by Continental to OEMs.

  • Due to increasingly stringent consumption and emission standards throughout the industrial world, including the EU and Asia, car manufacturers are increasingly being forced to develop environmentally compatible technologies aimed at lowering fuel consumption as well as CO2 and particulate emissions. Since emission standards in Europe and other countries will consist of increasingly stringent reduction targets in the future, the number of hybrid vehicles and all-electric vehicles is expected to increase significantly over the next few years. Demand for products and systems for combustion engines is likely to fall as a result.
  • The trend toward more electronic and digitalized products may negatively affect demand for established analog/mechanical products and systems.

As a result of the market trends and technological developments described previously, the vehicle mix sold by Continental’s customers, as well as the vehicle equipment, has changed considerably in the last few years and may also continue to change in the future. Continental is reacting to this development with a balanced and innovative product portfolio.

Continental is exposed to risks associated with additional or higher tariffs.
Due to the trend toward protectionism and the increase in trade conflicts around the world, Continental sees itself at risk from additional or higher tariffs on automobiles and on the products, components and raw materials it supplies or purchases. These tariffs could cause demand for Continental’s products to drop and costs to increase, which would have an adverse effect on Continental’s business and earnings situation.

Continental is exposed to fluctuations in the prices of raw materials and electronic components.
For the business areas of Automotive Technologies and Powertrain Technologies, higher prices for raw materials and electronic components in particular can result in cost increases. The business areas of Rubber Technologies mainly depend on the development of oil, natural rubber and synthetic rubber prices. The prices for these raw materials and components are exposed to sometimes considerable fluctuations worldwide. At present, Continental does not actively hedge against the risk of rising prices of electronic components or raw materials by using derivative instruments. If the company is not able to compensate for the increased costs or to pass them on to customers, the price increases could reduce Continental’s earnings by €100 million to €200 million.

Risks Related to Continental’s Business Operations

Continental is exposed to risks in connection with its pension commitments.
Continental provides defined benefit pension plans in Germany, the USA, the UK and certain other countries. As at December 31, 2020, the pension obligations amounted to €8,647.8 million. These existing obligations are financed predominantly through externally invested pension plan assets. In 2006, Continental established legally independent trust funds under contractual trust arrangements (CTAs) for the funding of pension obligations of certain subsidiaries in Germany. In 2007, Continental assumed additional CTAs in connection with the acquisition of Siemens VDO. As at December 31, 2020, Continental’s net pension obligations (defined benefit obligations less the fair value of plan assets) amounted to €5,444.6 million.

Continental’s externally invested plan assets are funded by externally managed funds and insurance companies. While Continental generally prescribes the investment, strategies applied by these funds and takes this into account when selecting external fund managers, it does not have any influence over their individual investment decisions. The assets are invested in different asset classes, including equity, fixed-income securities, real estate and other investment vehicles. The values attributable to the externally invested plan assets are subject to fluctuations in the capital markets that are beyond Continental’s influence. Unfavorable developments in the capital markets could result in a substantial coverage shortfall for these pension obligations, resulting in a significant increase in Continental’s net pension obligations.

Any such increase in Continental’s net pension obligations could adversely affect Continental’s financial condition due to an increased additional outflow of funds to finance the pension obligations. Also, Continental is exposed to risks associated with longevity and interest-rate changes in connection with its pension commitments, as an interest-rate decrease could have an adverse effect on Continental’s liabilities under these pension plans. Furthermore, certain US-based subsidiaries of Continental have entered into obligations to make contributions to healthcare costs of former employees and retirees. Accordingly, Continental is exposed to the potential risk that these costs may increase in the future.

If the discount rates used to calculate net pension obligations were to decrease by 0.5 percentage points at the end of the year, all other things being equal, this would lead to a rise in net pension obligations of €900 million to €1.0 billion, which would not be reduced by taking measures to minimize risk. However, this would not affect EBIT.

Continental is exposed to warranty and product liability claims.
Continental is constantly subject to product liability claims and proceedings alleging violations of due care, violation of warranty obligations or material defects, and claims arising from breaches of contract due to recalls or government proceedings. Any such lawsuits, proceedings and other claims could result in increased costs for Continental. Moreover, defective products could result in loss of sales and loss of customer and market acceptance. Such risks are insured up to levels considered economically reasonable by Continental, but its insurance coverage could prove insufficient in individual cases. Additionally, any defect in one of Continental’s products (in particular tires and other safety-related products) could also have a considerable adverse effect on the company’s reputation and market perception. This could in turn have a negative impact on Continental’s sales and income. Moreover, vehicle manufacturers are increasingly requiring a contribution from their suppliers for potential product liability, warranty and recall claims. In addition, Continental has long been subject to continuing efforts by its customers to change contract terms and conditions concerning the contribution to warranty and recall cost. Furthermore, Continental manufactures many products pursuant to OEM customer specifications and quality requirements. If the products manufactured and delivered by Continental do not meet the requirements stipulated by its OEM customers at the agreed date of delivery, production of the relevant products is generally discontinued until the cause of the product defect has been identified and remedied. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to losses of sales and earnings. Furthermore, Continental’s OEM customers could potentially claim damages, even if the cause of the defect is remedied at a later point in time. Moreover, failure to fulfill quality requirements could have an adverse effect on the market acceptance of Continental’s other products and its market reputation in various market segments.

The quantifiable risks from warranty and product liability claims as at December 31, 2020, taking into account provisions, amounted to between €200 million and €300 million.

Continental depends on a limited number of key suppliers for certain products.
Continental is subject to the potential risk of unavailability of certain raw materials and production materials. Although Continental’s general policy is to source input products from a number of different suppliers, single sourcing cannot always be avoided and, consequently, Continental is dependent on certain suppliers in Rubber Technologies as well as with respect to certain products manufactured by Automotive Technologies and Powertrain Technologies. Since Continental’s procurement logistics are mostly organized on a just-in-time or just-in-sequence basis, supply delays, cancellations, strikes, insufficient quantities or inadequate quality can lead to interruptions in production and, therefore, have a negative impact on Continental’s business operations in these areas. Continental tries to limit these risks by endeavoring to select suppliers carefully and monitor them regularly. However, if one of Continental’s suppliers is unable to meet its delivery obligations for any reason (e.g. insolvency, destruction of production plants as a result of natural disasters, refusal to perform following a change in control, or the far-reaching effects of the COVID-19 pandemic), Continental may be unable to source input products from other suppliers on short notice at the required volume. Such developments and events can therefore cause delays in the delivery or completion of Continental products or projects and could result in Continental having to purchase products or services from third parties at higher costs or even to financially support its own suppliers. Furthermore, in many cases OEM customers have approval rights with respect to the suppliers used by Continental, which could make it impossible for Continental to source input products from other suppliers upon short notice if the relevant OEM customer has not already approved other suppliers at an earlier point in time and which could lead to order cancellations. Claims for damages on a considerable scale could also not be ruled out. Furthermore, Continental’s reputation among OEM customers could suffer, with the possible consequence that they select a different supplier.

Due to the current shortages and supply problems in the semiconductor industry, Automotive Technologies and Powertrain Technologies in particular are currently exposed to the risk of increased supply chain costs of €100 million to €200 million.

Continental is exposed to information-technology risks.
With regard to its business and production processes, its products and its internal and external communication, Continental is highly dependent on centralized and standardized information-technology systems and networks. These systems and networks as well as the products themselves are potentially exposed to the risk of various forms of cybercrime as well as damage and disruption that can have a wide range of other causes. In hacker attacks, third parties could attempt to gain unauthorized access to confidential information and data that is stored, processed or communicated in the systems and networks. In addition, data, products and systems could be blocked, damaged, controlled or destroyed as a result of becoming infected with viruses or malware.

Although Continental has taken appropriate precautions to manage the risks associated with system and network disruptions and corresponding attacks, a prolonged outage in a computer center or telecommunication network or a comparable incident could result in systems or networks becoming unexpectedly unavailable over an extended period. The measures taken to minimize such risks include technical and organizational precautions such as duplicated data storage and contingency plans, as well as suitable training measures that are continuously expanded, particularly to raise awareness of the growing threat from cybercrime.

Should the precautions taken prove insufficient to adequately protect the systems, networks, products and information, Continental could suffer considerable damage and disadvantages as a result of outages or the knowledge and use of its information by third parties.

Continental could be adversely affected by property loss and business interruption.
Fire, natural hazards, terrorism, power failures or other disturbances at Continental’s production facilities or within Continental’s supply chain – with customers and with suppliers – can result in severe damage and loss. Such far-reaching negative consequences can also arise from political unrest or instability. The risks arising from business interruption, loss of production, or the financing of facilities are insured up to levels considered economically reasonable by Continental, but its insurance coverage could prove insufficient in individual cases. Furthermore, such events could injure or damage individuals, third-party property or the environment, which could, among other things, lead to considerable financial costs for Continental.

Continental is exposed to risks in connection with its interest in MC Projects B.V.
Continental and Compagnie Financière Michelin SCmA, Granges-Paccot, Switzerland (Michelin), each hold a 50% stake in MC Projects B.V., Maastricht, Netherlands, a company to which Michelin contributed the rights to the Uniroyal brand for Europe as well as for certain countries outside Europe. In turn, MC Projects B.V. licensed to Continental certain rights to use the Uniroyal brand on or in connection with tires in Europe and elsewhere. Under the terms of the agreement concluded in this connection, both the agreement and the Uniroyal license can be terminated if a major competitor in the tire business acquires more than 50% of the voting rights of Continental AG or of its tire business. Furthermore, in this case Michelin also has the right to acquire a majority in MC Projects B.V. and to have MC Projects B.V. increase its minority stake in the manufacturing company Continental Barum s.r.o., Otrokovice, Czechia – one of Continental’s largest tire plants in Europe – to 51%. These events could have an adverse effect on the business and earnings position of Continental’s Tires business area.

Legal and Environmental Risks

Continental could be threatened with fines and claims for damages for alleged or actual unlawful behavior.
In May 2005, the Brazilian competition authorities opened investigations against Continental’s Brazilian subsidiary Continental Brasil Industria Automotiva Ltda., Guarulhos, Brazil (CBIA), following a complaint of anticompetitive behavior in the area of commercialization of tachographs. On August 18, 2010, the Brazilian antitrust authorities determined an “invitation to cartel” and imposed a fine of BRL 12 million (around €1.9 million) on CBIA, which was then reduced to BRL 10.8 million (around €1.7 million). CBIA denies the accusation that it has infringed Brazilian antitrust law. Although the court of first instance appealed to by CBIA upheld the decision, on CBIA’s further appeal the next higher court annulled this decision and remanded the matter. In case an infringement of Brazilian antitrust law is found, third parties may, in addition, claim damages from CBIA.

On October 2, 2006, South African antitrust authorities received a complaint from a third party accusing several South African tire manufacturers of alleged antitrust behavior, including Continental Tyre South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Port Elizabeth (CTSA), a subsidiary of Continental. On August 31, 2010, the South African antitrust authorities came to the conclusion that CTSA had violated South African antitrust law and referred the matter to the responsible antitrust court for a decision. CTSA denies the allegation of infringements of South African antitrust law. However, the tribunal could impose a fine of up to 10% of CTSA’s sales. In addition, third parties may also claim damages from CTSA in case of an infringement of South African competition law.

As a result of investigations by the US Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Korea Fair Trade Commission (KFTC) in connection with the suspected involvement in violations of US and South Korean antitrust law in the instrument cluster business, which came to light in 2012, the KFTC imposed a fine on Continental Automotive Electronics LLC, Bugang-myeon, South Korea (CAE), at the end of 2013, the final amount of which was set in 2018 at KRW 32,101 million (around €24 million). In the USA, CAE and Continental Automotive Korea Ltd., Seongnam-si, South Korea, agreed to pay a fine of US $4.0 million (approximately €3.3 million). In the proceedings relating to class action lawsuits filed in the USA and Canada for alleged damages resulting from the antitrust violations, settlements totaling US $5.0 million (around €4.1 million) were concluded in the USA in 2018 and CAN $0.6 million (around €0.4 million) in Canada in 2020. The risk of investigations by other antitrust authorities into this matter and further claims for damages by further alleged victims remain unaffected by the fines imposed.

As a result of investigations that came to light in 2014, the European Commission imposed a fine of €44.0 million on Continental AG; Continental Teves AG & Co. oHG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; and Continental Automotive GmbH, Hanover, Germany; on February 21, 2018, for the unlawful exchange of information. This involved specific brake components. Continental has set aside provisions that cover this fine. Continental cannot rule out the possibility that customers will claim for damages with reference to the commission’s decision. At this point in time, it is not possible to say whether such claims will be submitted and, if they are, how much the damages will be – irrespective of whether or not the claims are justified. As a result, it cannot be ruled out that the resulting expenses will exceed the provisions that have been set aside for this purpose. In accordance with IAS 37.92 and GAS 20.154, no further disclosures will be made with regard to the proceedings and the related measures so as not to adversely affect the company’s interests.

The public prosecutor’s office in Hanover searched locations of Continental AG and certain subsidiaries as part of investigations in connection with the use of illegal defeat devices in VW diesel engines. Continental is cooperating fully with the Hanover public prosecutor’s office. There is a risk that fines will be imposed on these companies as a result of the allegations. The amount of such fines is unknown from the current perspective, but could be significant. Also in view of the full cooperation of Continental, no further disclosures can be made with regard to the ongoing investigations, so as not to adversely affect the company’s interests.

There is a risk that Continental could infringe on the industrial property rights of third parties.
There is a risk that Continental could infringe on the industrial property rights of third parties, since its competitors, suppliers and customers also submit a large number of inventions for industrial property protection. It is not always possible to determine with certainty whether there are effective and enforceable third-party industrial property rights to certain processes, methods or applications. Therefore, third parties could assert claims (including illegitimate ones) of alleged infringements of industrial property rights against Continental. As a result, Continental could be required to cease manufacturing, using or marketing the relevant technologies or products in certain countries, or be forced to make changes to manufacturing processes and/or products. In addition, Continental could be liable to pay compensation for infringements or could be forced to purchase licenses to continue using technology from third parties. Continental, for example, supplies telecommunication modules that transmit vehicle data, enable voice and internet functionality, and are compatible with cellular communication standards. In this respect, there is a risk that Continental or its suppliers may be denied their own direct license to use patents relating to these standards (standard essential patents), especially in the field of telecommunications standards such as 3G, 4G or 5G, and that Continental may become dependent on licenses and the conditions under which they are granted to customers. In addition, Continental is subject to efforts by its customers to change contract terms and conditions concerning the participation in disputes regarding alleged infringements of intellectual property rights.

Continental is exposed to risks from legal disputes.
Companies from the Continental Group are involved in a number of legal and arbitration proceedings and could become involved in other such proceedings in the future. These proceedings could involve substantial claims for damages or payments, particularly in the USA. For more information on legal disputes, see Note 36 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

Continental could be unsuccessful in adequately protecting its intellectual property and technical expertise.
Continental’s products and services are highly dependent upon its technological know-how and the scope and limitations of its proprietary rights therein. Continental has obtained or applied for a large number of patents and other industrial property rights that are of considerable importance to its business. The process of obtaining patent protection can be lengthy and expensive. Furthermore, patents may not be granted on currently pending or future applications or may not be of sufficient scope or strength to provide Continental with meaningful protection or commercial advantage. In addition, although there is a presumption that patents are valid, this does not necessarily mean that the patent concerned is effective or that possible patent claims can be enforced to the degree necessary or desired.

A major part of Continental’s know-how and trade secrets is not patented or cannot be protected through industrial property rights. Consequently, there is a risk that certain parts of Continental’s know-how and trade secrets could be transferred to collaboration partners, customers and suppliers, including Continental’s machinery suppliers or plant vendors. This poses a risk that competitors will copy Continental’s know-how without incurring any expenses of their own. Moreover, Continental has concluded a number of license, cross-license, collaboration and development agreements with its customers, competitors and other third parties under which Continental is granted rights to industrial property and/or know-how of such third parties. It is possible that license agreements could be terminated under certain circumstances in the event of the licensing partner’s insolvency or bankruptcy and/or in the event of a change of control in either party, leaving Continental with reduced access to intellectual property rights to commercialize its own technologies.

Continental could become subject to additional burdensome environmental or safety regulations, and new regulations could adversely affect demand for the company’s products and services.
As a corporation that operates worldwide, Continental must observe a large number of different regulatory systems in numerous countries that change frequently and are continuously evolving and becoming more stringent, particularly with respect to the environment, chemicals and hazardous materials, as well as health regulations. This also applies to air, water and soil pollution regulations and to waste legislation, all of which have recently become more stringent through new laws, particularly in the EU and the USA. Moreover, Continental’s sites and operations necessitate various permits and the requirements specified therein must be complied with. In the past, adjusting to new requirements has necessitated significant investments and Continental assumes that further significant investments in this regard will be required in the future.