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2022 Annual Report

Creating Value.
For a Better Tomorrow.

2022 Annual Report


Glossary of Financial Terms

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The following glossary of financial terms applies to the management report and the consolidated financial statements.

Adjusted EBIT

EBIT before amortization of intangible assets from purchase price allocation (PPA), changes in the scope of consolidation, and special effects. Special effects include, for example:

  • Impairment (including impairment on goodwill)
  • Income and expenses from restructuring measures
  • Gains and losses from disposals of companies and business operations
  • Significant special effects from non-recurring events; in particular, one-off effects from acquisitions of companies and business operations (e.g. negative goodwill, purchase price refunds) or significant changes to the corporate structure (e.g. spin-off effects)

Since it eliminates one-off effects, adjusted EBIT can also be used to compare operational profitability between periods.

Adjusted free cash flow

Free cash flow adjusted for acquisitions and divestments of companies and business operations. Since it eliminates one-off effects, adjusted free cash flow can also be used to compare financial strength between periods.

Adjusted sales

Sales adjusted for changes in the scope of consolidation.

American depositary receipts (ADRs)

ADRs securitize the ownership of shares and can refer to one, several or even a portion of a share. ADRs are traded on US stock exchanges in the place of foreign shares or shares that may not be listed on US stock exchanges.

Capital employed

The funds used by the company to generate its sales.

Cash conversion ratio

Ratio of free cash flow excluding acquisitions and divestments of companies and business units, restructuring expenses, restructuring-related expenses and carve-out effects to net income attributable to the shareholders of the parent.

Changes in the scope of consolidation

Changes in the scope of consolidation include additions and disposals as part of share and asset deals as well as other transactions. Adjustments were made for additions in the reporting year and for disposals in the comparative period of the prior year.

Continental Value Contribution (CVC)

The absolute amount of additional value created. The delta CVC represents the change in absolute value creation compared with the prior year. The delta CVC allows us to monitor the extent to which operating units generate value-creating growth or employ resources more efficiently.

The CVC is measured by subtracting the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) from the return on capital employed (ROCE) and multiplying this by the average operating assets for the fiscal year. The WACC calculated for the Continental Group corresponds to the required minimum return. The cost of capital is calculated as the weighted average ratio of the cost of equity and borrowing costs.

Currency swap

Swap of principal payable or receivable in one currency into similar terms in another currency. Often used when issuing loans denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the lender.

Derivative instruments

Transactions used to manage interest-rate and/or currency risks.

Dividend payout ratio

The ratio between the dividend for the fiscal year and the earnings per share.


Earnings before interest and tax. In Continental’s financial reports, this abbreviation is defined as earnings before financial result and tax. It is the result of ordinary business activities and is used to assess operational profitability.


Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization. In Continental’s financial reports, this abbreviation is defined as earnings before financial result, tax, depreciation and amortization. It equals the sum of EBIT; depreciation of property, plant and equipment; amortization of intangible assets; and impairment, excluding impairment on financial investments. This key figure is used to assess operational profitability.

Financial result

The financial result is defined as the sum of interest income, interest expense, the effects from currency translation (resulting from financial transactions), the effects from changes in the fair value of derivative instruments, and other valuation effects. The financial result is the result of financial activities.

Free cash flow

The sum of cash flow arising from operating activities and cash flow arising from investing activities. Also referred to as cash flow before financing activities. Free cash flow is used to assess financial performance.

Gearing ratio

Net indebtedness divided by equity. Also known as the debt-to-equity ratio. This key figure is used to assess the financing structure.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

A measure of the economic performance of a national economy. It specifies the value of all goods and services produced within a country in a year.


Securing a transaction against risks, such as fluctuations in exchange rates, by entering into an offsetting hedge transaction, typically in the form of a forward contract.


International Accounting Standards. Accounting standards developed and resolved by the IASB.


International Accounting Standards Board. Independent standardization committee.


International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (predecessor of the IFRS IC).


International Financial Reporting Standards. The standards are developed and resolved by the IASB. In a broad sense, they also include the IAS, the interpretations of the IFRS IC or of the predecessor IFRIC as well as the former SIC.


International Financial Reporting Standards Interpretations Committee.

Interest-rate swap

The exchange of interest payments between two parties. For example, this allows variable interest rates to be exchanged for fixed interest or vice versa.

Net indebtedness

The net amount of interest-bearing financial liabilities as recognized in the statement of financial position, the fair values of the derivative instruments, cash and cash equivalents, as well as other interest-bearing investments. This figure is the basis for calculating key figures of the capital structure.

Operating assets

The assets less liabilities as reported in the statement of financial position, without recognizing the net indebtedness, sale of trade accounts receivable, deferred tax assets, income tax receivables and payables, as well as other financial assets and debts. Average operating assets are calculated as at the end of the quarterly periods and, according to our definition, correspond to the capital employed.


Purchase price allocation. The process of breaking down the purchase price and assigning the values to the identified assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities following a business combination. Subsequent adjustments to the opening statement of financial position – resulting from differences between the preliminary and final fair values at the date of initial consolidation – are also recognized as PPA.


Standardized indicator for the international finance markets that assesses and classifies the creditworthiness of a debtor. The classification is the result of an economic analysis of the debtor by specialist rating companies.

Research and development expenses (net)

Research and development expenses (net) are defined as expenses for research and development less reimbursements and subsidies that we received in this context.

Return on capital employed (ROCE)

The ratio of EBIT to average operating assets for the fiscal year. The ROCE corresponds to the rate of return on the capital employed and is used to assess the company’s profitability and efficiency.


Standing Interpretations Committee (predecessor of the IFRIC).

Tax rate

The ratio of income tax expense to the earnings before tax. It can be used to estimate the company’s tax burden.

Weighted average cost of capital (WACC)

The weighted average cost of the required return on equity and net interest-bearing liabilities.

Working capital

Inventories plus trade accounts receivable less trade accounts payable. Sales of trade accounts receivable are not included.