The order of the risk categories and individual risks presented within the four risk groups reflects the current assessment of the relative risk exposure for Continental and thus provides an indication of the current significance of these risks. If no quantitative information on the amount of damage is provided, the assessment is carried out on the basis of qualitative criteria. Unless the emphasis is placed on a specific group sector, the risks apply to all group sectors.
Continental is exposed to risks in connection with its financing agreements and the syndicated loan.
Continental is subject to risks in connection with its financing agreements. Risks arise from the bonds that Continental AG and Conti-Gummi-Finance B.V., Maastricht, Netherlands, have issued as part of the Debt Issuance Programme (DIP). These financing agreements contain covenants that could limit Continental’s capacity to take action as well as change-of-control provisions.
In order to finance its current business activities as well as its investments and payment obligations, Continental concluded a syndicated loan agreement in December 2019, recently updated in November 2021, from which risks may arise. Under the terms of the syndicated loan agreement, the lenders have the right to demand repayment of the loan in the event of a change of control at Continental AG.
The requirements for and consequences of a change in control in accordance with the terms of the bonds or the syndicated loan agreement are described in detail in the Additional Disclosures and Notes Pursuant to Section 289a and Section 315a HGB section on pages 82 and 83. The loans and bonds cited here could also immediately become due and payable if other financing agreements of more than €75.0 million are not repaid on time or are prematurely called for repayment.
The committed volume of the syndicated loan consists of a revolving tranche of €4.0 billion (due in December 2026). This had not been utilized as at the end of fiscal 2021.
Continental is exposed to risks associated with changes in currency exchange rates and hedging.
Continental operates worldwide and is therefore exposed to financial risks that arise from changes in exchange rates. This could result in losses if assets denominated in currencies with a falling exchange rate lose value and/or liabilities denominated in currencies with a rising exchange rate appreciate. In addition, fluctuations in exchange rates could intensify or reduce fluctuations in the prices of raw materials in euros, as Continental sources a considerable portion of its raw materials in foreign currency. As a result of these factors, fluctuations in exchange rates can influence Continental’s earnings situation.
External and internal transactions involving the delivery of products and services to third parties and companies of the Continental Group can result in cash inflows and outflows that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the respective subsidiary of the Continental Group (transaction risk). To the extent that cash outflows of the respective subsidiary of the Continental Group in any one foreign currency are not offset by cash flows resulting from operational business in the same currency, the remaining net exchange-rate risk is hedged against on a case-by-case basis using the appropriate derivative instruments, particularly currency forwards, currency swaps and currency options with a term of up to 12 months.
Moreover, Continental is exposed to exchange-rate risks arising from external and internal loan agreements that result in cash inflows and outflows denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the respective subsidiary of the Continental Group. These exchange-rate risks are in general hedged against by using appropriate derivative instruments, particularly currency forwards, currency swaps and cross-currency interest-rate swaps. Any hedging transactions executed in the form of derivative instruments can result in losses. In addition, a number of Continental’s consolidated companies report their results in currencies other than the euro, which requires Continental to convert the relevant items into euros when preparing Continental’s consolidated financial statements (translation risk). Translation risks are generally not hedged.
In order to quantify the possible effects of transaction-related exchange-rate risks from financial instruments on the earnings position of the Continental Group, transaction currencies with a significant exchange-rate risk within the next 12 months are identified based on current net exposure. If the exchange rates of these currencies all develop disadvantageously for Continental at the same time, then the hypothetical negative effect on the Continental Group’s earnings position, calculated based on a 10% change in the current closing rate, would amount to between €400 million and €500 million.
Continental is exposed to default risks in connection with cash and cash equivalents, derivative instruments and interest-bearing investments.
In order to minimize the default risk for cash and cash equivalents, derivative instruments and interest-bearing investments, Continental generally uses banks that it has classified as core banks on the basis of defined criteria. As a general rule, these banks should have at least one investment-grade credit rating from one of the global rating agencies. The default risk can therefore be considered very low. The creditworthiness of the core banks – and of other banks with which investments are made, loans are granted or derivative instruments are traded in derogation from the core bank principle for operational or regulatory reasons – is continuously monitored. Not only the credit ratings but also in particular the premiums for insuring against credit default risks (credit default swaps, CDSs) are monitored, provided this information is available. In addition, Continental sets investment limits for each bank and trading limits for derivative instruments. The amount of these limits is based on the creditworthiness of the respective bank. Compliance with these limits is continuously monitored. Within the internally defined risk groups, the cash and cash equivalents, interest-bearing investments and positive (net) fair values of derivative instruments held at banks assigned to a higher risk group range from €200 million to €300 million.
Risks Related to the Markets in Which Continental Operates
Continental could be exposed to material risks in connection with a global financial and economic crisis.
With a 61% share of consolidated sales, the automotive industry – with the exception of the replacement business – is Continental’s most important customer group. The remainder of its sales are generated from the replacement or industrial markets, mainly in the replacement markets for passenger-car and truck tires, and to a lesser extent in the non-automotive end markets of the other group sectors.
In the year under review, global automotive markets recovered more slowly than expected, with ongoing high volatility and uncertainty resulting in particular from problems within supply chains. Should a long-term revival take longer than anticipated or be dampened by a general economic downturn, it would likely further adversely affect Continental’s sales and earnings.
In the year under review, Continental’s five largest OEM customers (Daimler, Ford, Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi, Stellantis and VW) generated approximately 33% of sales. If one or more of Continental’s OEM customers is lost or terminates a supply contract prematurely, the original investments made by Continental to provide such products or outstanding claims against such customers could be wholly or partially lost.
Moreover, Continental generated 49% of its 2021 total sales in Europe and 17% in Germany alone. By comparison, 25% of Continental’s total sales in 2021 were generated in North America, 22% in Asia-Pacific, and 4% in other countries. Therefore, in the event of an economic downturn in Europe, particularly in Germany, for example, Continental’s business and earnings situation could be affected more extensively than that of its competitors. Furthermore, the automotive and tire markets in Europe and North America are largely saturated. To minimize this dependence, Continental is striving to improve the regional sales balance, particularly by generating more sales in emerging markets and especially in Asia.
Based on a scenario analysis that assumes stagnation with regard to the global production of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in 2022, and taking into account measures required as a result, we anticipate a decline of around 2 percentage points in the adjusted EBIT margin.
Continental could be severely affected by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic over a longer period.
Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the associated measures to tackle this worldwide, as well as the significant restrictions on production both at the Continental Group and at its customers and suppliers, there is a risk of significant and long-term negative effects on sales and procurement markets. This would have a considerable negative impact on the availability of raw materials and components as well as Continental’s sales volumes both in the OEM business and in the industrial and replacement business. The duration of the general economic downturn as well as its effects on global supply chains and Continental’s various business units will largely depend on the success of containment measures as well as the effectiveness of corresponding relief packages and fiscal stimulus measures. While Continental has introduced measures aimed, for example, at improving its cost structure and ensuring supply chains, there is generally a risk of considerable and long-term negative effects on Continental’s earnings, financial and net assets position.
Continental operates in a cyclical industry.
With a 61% share of consolidated sales, the automotive industry – with the exception of the replacement business – is Continental’s most important customer group. Global production of vehicles and, as a result, sales to OEMs are subjected to major fluctuations in some cases. They depend, among other things, on general economic conditions, disposable income and household consumer spending and preferences, which can be affected by a number of factors, including fuel costs as well as the availability and cost of consumer financing. As the volume of automotive production fluctuates, the demand for Continental’s products also fluctuates, as OEMs generally do not commit to purchasing minimum quantities from their suppliers or to fixed prices. It is difficult to predict future developments in the markets Continental serves, which also makes it harder to estimate the requirements for production capacity. As Continental’s business is characterized by high fixed costs, it is thus exposed to the risk that fixed costs are not fully covered in the event of falling demand and the resulting underutilization of its facilities (particularly in Automotive). Conversely, should the markets in which Continental operates once again grow faster than anticipated, there could be insufficient capacity to meet customer demand. To reduce the impact of the potential risk resulting from this dependence on the automotive industry, Continental is strengthening its replacement business and industrial business, including by means of acquisitions.
Continental is exposed to fluctuations in the prices of raw materials and electronic components as well as a rise in energy and logistics costs.
For the Automotive group sector, higher prices for raw materials and electronic components in particular can result in cost increases. The Tires and ContiTech group sectors mainly use natural and synthetic rubber as well as oil-based raw materials. The prices for these raw materials and components are exposed to sometimes considerable fluctuations worldwide. At present, Continental does not actively hedge against the risk of rising prices of electronic components or raw materials by using derivative instruments. There may also be a significant rise in energy and logistics costs. If the company is not able to compensate for the increased costs or to pass them on to customers, these price increases could reduce Continental’s earnings by €400 million to €500 million.
Continental is exposed to risks associated with additional or higher tariffs.
Due to the trend toward protectionism and the increase in trade conflicts around the world, Continental sees itself at risk from additional or higher tariffs on automobiles and on the products, components and raw materials it supplies or purchases. These tariffs could cause demand for Continental’s products to drop and costs to increase, which would have an adverse effect on Continental’s business and earnings situation.
Continental is exposed to geopolitical risks.
On March 7, 2022, due to ongoing geopolitical developments, the Executive Board of Continental amended its report on risks and opportunities dated February 22, 2022, as follows: Current geopolitical developments such as the war in Ukraine, the conflict between China and Taiwan, and the recent disputes between China and Lithuania could have an impact on Continental’s sales and procurement markets. These include sanctions and other risks in supply chains as well as unforeseeable effects on the global economy. Continental constantly monitors current developments and derives possible scenarios and necessary measures.
Risks Related to Continental’s Business Operations
Continental is exposed to risks in connection with its pension commitments.
Continental provides defined benefit pension plans in Germany, the USA, the UK and certain other countries. As at December 31, 2021, the pension obligations amounted to €7,248.6 million. These existing obligations are financed predominantly through externally invested pension plan assets. In 2006, Continental established legally independent trust funds under contractual trust arrangements (CTAs) for the funding of pension obligations of certain subsidiaries in Germany. In 2007, Continental assumed additional CTAs in connection with the acquisition of Siemens VDO. As at December 31, 2021, Continental’s net pension obligations (defined benefit obligations less the fair value of plan assets) amounted to €4,184.3 million.
Continental’s externally invested plan assets are funded by externally managed funds and insurance companies. While Continental generally prescribes the investment strategies applied by these funds and takes these into account when selecting external fund managers, it does not have any influence over their individual investment decisions. The assets are invested in different asset classes, including equity, fixed-income securities, real estate and other investment vehicles. The values attributable to the externally invested plan assets are subject to fluctuations in the capital markets that are beyond Continental’s influence. Unfavorable developments in the capital markets could result in a substantial coverage shortfall for these pension obligations, resulting in a significant increase in Continental’s net pension obligations.
Any such increase in Continental’s net pension obligations could adversely affect Continental’s financial condition due to an increased additional outflow of funds to finance the pension obligations. Also, Continental is exposed to risks associated with longevity and interest- rate changes in connection with its pension commitments, as an interest-rate decrease could have an adverse effect on Continental’s liabilities under these pension plans. Furthermore, certain US-based subsidiaries of Continental have entered into obligations to make contributions to healthcare costs of former employees and retirees. Accordingly, Continental is exposed to the potential risk that these costs may increase in the future.
If the discount rates used to calculate net pension obligations were to decrease by 0.5 percentage points at the end of the year, all other things being equal, this would lead to a rise in net pension obligations of anywhere from €700 million to €800 million which could not be reduced by taking measures to minimize risk. However, this would not affect EBIT.
Continental depends on a limited number of key suppliers for certain products.
Continental is subject to the potential risk of unavailability of certain raw materials and production materials. Although Continental’s general policy is to source product components from a number of different suppliers, single sourcing cannot always be avoided and, consequently, Continental is dependent on certain suppliers in Tires and ContiTech as well as with respect to certain products manufactured by Automotive. Since Continental’s procurement logistics are mostly organized on a just-in-time or just-in-sequence basis, supply delays, cancellations, strikes, insufficient quantities or inadequate quality can lead to interruptions in production and therefore have a negative impact on Continental’s business operations in these areas. Continental tries to limit these risks by endeavoring to select suppliers carefully and monitor them regularly. However, if one of Continental’s suppliers is unable to meet its delivery obligations for any reason (e.g. insolvency, destruction of production plants as a result of natural disasters, refusal to perform following a change in control, or the far-reaching effects of the COVID-19 pandemic), or if corresponding deliveries are affected by sanctions due to geopolitical disputes, Continental may be unable to source input products from other suppliers on short notice at the required volume. Such developments and events can therefore cause delays in the delivery or completion of Continental products or projects and could result in Continental having to purchase products or services from third parties at higher costs or even to financially support its own suppliers. Furthermore, in many cases OEM customers have approval rights with respect to the suppliers used by Continental, which could make it impossible for Continental to source input products from other suppliers upon short notice if the relevant OEM customer has not already approved other suppliers at an earlier point in time and which could lead to order cancellations. Claims for damages on a considerable scale could also not be ruled out. Furthermore, Continental’s reputation among OEM customers could suffer, with the possible consequence that they select a different supplier.
Continental is exposed to warranty and product liability claims.
In its quality strategy, Continental has defined the framework conditions for all quality-related activities and ascribes the highest priority to quality. However, Continental is constantly subject to product liability claims and proceedings alleging violations of due care, violation of warranty obligations or material defects, and claims arising from breaches of contract due to recalls or government proceedings. Any such lawsuits, proceedings and other claims could result in increased costs for Continental. Moreover, defective products could result in loss of sales and loss of customer and market acceptance. Such risks are insured up to levels considered economically reasonable by Continental, but its insurance coverage could prove insufficient in individual cases. Additionally, any defect in one of Continental’s products (in particular tires and other safety-related products) could also have a considerable adverse effect on the company’s reputation and market perception. This could in turn have a negative impact on Continental’s sales and income. Moreover, vehicle manufacturers are increasingly requiring a contribution from their suppliers for potential product liability, warranty and recall claims. In addition, Continental has long been subject to continuing efforts by its customers to change contract terms and conditions concerning the contribution to warranty and recall cost. Furthermore, Continental manufactures many products pursuant to OEM customer specifications and quality requirements. If the products manufactured and delivered by Continental do not meet the requirements stipulated by its OEM customers at the agreed date of delivery, production of the relevant products is generally discontinued until the cause of the product defect has been identified and remedied. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to losses of sales and earnings. Furthermore, Continental’s OEM customers could potentially claim damages, even if the cause of the defect is remedied at a later point in time. Moreover, failure to fulfill quality requirements could have an adverse effect on the market acceptance of Continental’s other products and its market reputation in various market segments.
The quantifiable risks from warranty and product liability claims as at December 31, 2021, taking into account provisions, amounted to between €100 million and €200 million.
Continental is subject to the risk of postponed product launches due to delayed research and development projects.
In the Automotive group sector, delays in the development process due to steadily increasing complexity or lack of availability of qualified specialists could result in delayed product launches, which could lead to potential claims from customers. This could relate to specific projects for individual customers as well as general developments affecting multiple customers. To reduce the potential impact, critical projects are continuously and closely monitored and provided with additional resources. Should these measures prove insufficient, the potential claims asserted amount to €100 million to €200 million.
Continental is exposed to information-technology risks.
With regard to its business and production processes, its products and its internal and external communication, Continental is highly dependent on centralized and standardized information-technology systems and networks. These systems and networks as well as the products themselves are potentially exposed to the risk of various forms of cybercrime as well as damage and disruption that can have a wide range of other causes. In hacker attacks, third parties could attempt to gain unauthorized access to confidential information and data that is stored, processed or communicated in the systems and networks. In addition, data, products and systems could be blocked, damaged, controlled or destroyed as a result of becoming infected with viruses or malware.
Although Continental has taken appropriate precautions to manage the risks associated with system and network disruptions and corresponding attacks, a prolonged outage in a computer center or telecommunication network or a comparable incident could result in systems or networks becoming unexpectedly unavailable over an extended period. The measures taken to minimize such risks include technical and organizational precautions such as duplicated data storage and contingency plans, as well as suitable training measures that are continuously expanded, particularly to raise awareness of the growing threat from cybercrime.
Should the precautions taken prove insufficient to adequately protect the systems, networks, products and information, Continental could suffer considerable damage and disadvantages as a result of outages or the knowledge and use of its information by third parties.
Continental is exposed to risks from trade restrictions, sanctions and export controls.
Due to the global alignment of the economic activity of the Continental Group, there are business risks with respect to embargoes, sanctions and export controls. As a global company, Continental also has business relations with customers and partners based in countries that are – or may be in the future – subject to export restrictions, embargoes, economic sanctions or other forms of trade restrictions. In addition to the fundamental influence that such restrictions have on the business activity of the Continental Group, violations of relevant provisions may lead to considerable penalties, administrative sanctions, damage to the company’s reputation, as well as claims for damages. Continental may also be forced, through new trade restrictions, to limit or put an end to business activity in certain countries or regions.
Continental could be adversely affected by property loss and business interruption.
Fire, natural hazards, terrorism, power failures or other disturbances at Continental’s production facilities or within Continental’s supply chain – with customers and with suppliers – can result in severe damage and loss. Such far-reaching negative consequences can also arise from political unrest or instability. The risks arising from business interruption, loss of production, or the financing of facilities are insured up to levels considered economically reasonable by Continental, but its insurance coverage could prove insufficient in individual cases. Furthermore, such events could injure or damage individuals, third-party property or the environment, which could, among other things, lead to considerable financial costs for Continental.
Continental is exposed to risks in connection with its interest in MC Projects B.V.
Continental and Compagnie Financière Michelin SCmA, Granges-Paccot, Switzerland (Michelin), each hold a 50% stake in MC Projects B.V., Maastricht, Netherlands, a company to which Michelin contributed the rights to the Uniroyal brand for Europe as well as for certain countries outside Europe. In turn, MC Projects B.V. licensed to Continental certain rights to use the Uniroyal brand on or in connection with tires in Europe and elsewhere. Under the terms of the agreement concluded in this connection, both the agreement and the Uniroyal license can be terminated if a major competitor in the tire business acquires more than 50% of the voting rights of Continental AG or of its tire business.
Furthermore, in this case Michelin also has the right to acquire a majority in MC Projects B.V. and to have MC Projects B.V. increase its minority stake in the manufacturing company Continental Barum s.r.o., Otrokovice, Czechia – one of Continental’s largest tire plants in Europe – to 51%. These events could have an adverse effect on the business and earnings position of Continental’s Tires group sector.
Legal and Environmental Risks
Continental could be threatened with fines and claims for damages for alleged or actual unlawful behavior.
In May 2005, the Brazilian competition authorities opened investigations against Continental’s Brazilian subsidiary Continental Brasil Industria Automotiva Ltda., Guarulhos, Brazil (CBIA), following a complaint of anticompetitive behavior in the area of commercialization of tachographs. On August 18, 2010, the Brazilian antitrust authorities determined an “invitation to cartel” and imposed a fine of BRL 12 million (around €1.9 million) on CBIA, which was then reduced to BRL 10.8 million (around €1.7 million). CBIA denies the accusation that it has infringed Brazilian antitrust law. Although the court of first instance appealed to by CBIA upheld the decision, on CBIA’s further appeal the next higher court annulled this decision and remanded the matter. In case an infringement of Brazilian anti-trust law is found, third parties may, in addition, claim damages from CBIA.
On October 2, 2006, South African antitrust authorities received a complaint from a third party accusing several South African tire manufacturers of alleged antitrust behavior, including Continental Tyre South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Port Elizabeth, South Africa (CTSA), a subsidiary of Continental. On August 31, 2010, the South African antitrust authorities came to the conclusion that CTSA had violated South African antitrust law and referred the matter to the responsible antitrust court for a decision. CTSA denies the allegation of infringements of South African antitrust law. However, the tribunal could impose a fine of up to 10% of CTSA’s sales. In addition, third parties may also claim damages from CTSA in case of an infringement of South African competition law.
As a result of investigations by the US Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Korea Fair Trade Commission (KFTC) in connection with the suspected involvement in violations of US and South Korean antitrust law in the instrument cluster business, which came to light in 2012, the KFTC imposed a fine on Continental Automotive Electronics LLC, Bugang-myeon, South Korea (CAE), at the end of 2013, the final amount of which was set in 2018 at KRW 32,101 million (around €24 million). In the USA, CAE and Continental Automotive Korea Ltd., Seongnam-si, South Korea, agreed to pay a fine of US $4.0 million (approximately €3.5 million). In the proceedings relating to class action lawsuits filed in the USA and Canada for alleged damages resulting from the antitrust violations, settlements totaling US $5.0 million (around €4.4 million) were concluded in the USA in 2018 and settlements totaling CAN $0.6 million (around €0.4 million) concluded in Canada in 2020. The risk of investigations by other antitrust authorities into this matter and further claims for damages by further alleged victims remain unaffected by the fines imposed.
As a result of investigations that came to light in 2014, the European Commission imposed a fine of €44.0 million on Continental AG; Continental Teves AG & Co. oHG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; and Continental Automotive GmbH, Hanover, Germany; on February 21, 2018, for the unlawful exchange of information. This involved specific brake components. Customers have since approached Continental to claim for damages, in one case for a specific amount. Continental has rejected these claims as being without merit. Nevertheless, it cannot be ruled out that the resulting expenses will exceed the provisions that have been set aside for this purpose. In accordance with IAS 37.92 and GAS 20.154, no further disclosures will be made with regard to the proceedings and the related measures so as not to adversely affect the company’s interests.
On March 3, 2021, the Brazilian antitrust authorities (Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica, CADE), acting on the basis of the issues addressed by the European Commission and described above, formally initiated proceedings against Continental Teves AG & Co. oHG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, and certain former employees for alleged unlawful exchange of competition-sensitive information concerning hydraulic brake systems. The proceedings against Continental are still at an early stage. Continental is therefore unable to reliably predict in any way what the outcome of these proceedings will be. If Continental is found responsible for any violation, CADE could impose a fine on the company of 0.1% to 20% of its revenue or that of the Continental Group in Brazil in the year prior to when the administrative proceedings were launched (2020). Non-pecuniary penalties may also be possible. Furthermore, customers allegedly affected by the alleged exchange of information could claim for damages if indeed a violation of Brazilian antitrust law is established.
The public prosecutor’s office in Hanover is conducting investigative proceedings against current and former employees as well as former board members of Continental AG suspected of committing criminal acts in connection with the development and supply of illegal defeat devices for VW diesel engines as well as in connection with the company’s subsequent investigation of these actions, and as part of these proceedings has conducted multiple searches at locations of Continental AG and individual companies of the Continental Group. Continental AG and individual companies of the Continental Group are ancillary parties to these proceedings. The investigations concern activities of the former Powertrain business area that were transferred within the scope of the spin-off to Vitesco Technologies Group AG, Regensburg, Germany, and its subsidiaries.
In addition, the public prosecutor’s office in Frankfurt am Main, in connection with conducting administrative offense proceedings concerning illegal defeat devices in diesel engines of an international automotive manufacturer – proceedings which have meanwhile been legally concluded against this automotive manufacturer with payment of a fine – is conducting separate administrative offense proceedings against Continental AG on suspicion of breach of supervisory duties. The public prosecutor’s office in Frankfurt am Main is also conducting separate investigative proceedings against two former employees of Continental AG for suspected criminal acts carried out in connection with this matter.
Both the investigations by the public prosecutor’s office and the company’s internal investigation into the matters covered by these proceedings, which involve considerable costs and effort, are ongoing. Continental AG and the companies of the Continental Group are cooperating unreservedly with the public prosecutor’s offices in Hanover and Frankfurt am Main. There is a risk that fines will be imposed as a result of the allegations. The amount of such fines, which could comprise a levy and a penalty component, is currently unknown but collectively could be significant. Furthermore, the risk of damage to the company’s reputation cannot be ruled out.
To cover risks and costs arising from the proceedings conducted by the public prosecutor’s offices in Hanover and Frankfurt am Main, a provision amounting to a high eight-figure sum has been set aside.
In the event that fines or other measures are imposed on Continental AG and/or individual companies of the Continental Group that concern the transferred business, Vitesco Technologies Group AG is obligated on the basis of and in accordance with contractual provisions arising in particular from the corporate separation agreement concluded in the context of the spin-off to indemnify Continental AG and any individual companies of the Continental Group against the ensuing costs and liabilities. This is consistent with the agreement between the parties that all opportunities as well as all risks arising from the transferred business shall pass to Vitesco Technologies Group AG and the companies of Vitesco Technologies. These regulations have not been taken into account in the formation of the provision described above. In accordance with IAS 37.92 and GAS 20.154, no further disclosures will be made with regard to the proceedings and the related measures and any potential claims against Vitesco Technologies Group AG so as not to adversely affect the company’s interests.
In view of the scope of these national and international investigations against automotive manufacturers and suppliers, further proceedings by public authorities, civil legal proceedings, and claims by third parties along with the related financial risks cannot be ruled out.
There is a risk that Continental could infringe on the industrial property rights of third parties.
There is a risk that Continental could infringe on the industrial property rights of third parties, since its competitors, suppliers and customers also submit a large number of inventions for industrial property protection. It is not always possible to determine with certainty whether there are effective and enforceable third-party industrial property rights to certain processes, methods or applications. Therefore, third parties could assert claims (including illegitimate ones) of alleged infringements of industrial property rights against Continental. As a result, Continental could be required to cease manufacturing, using or marketing the relevant technologies or products in certain countries, or be forced to make changes to manufacturing processes and/or products. In addition, Continental could be liable to pay compensation for infringements or could be forced to purchase licenses to continue using technology from third parties. Continental, for example, supplies telecommunication modules that transmit vehicle data, enable voice and internet functionality, and are compatible with cellular communication standards. In this respect, there is a risk that Continental or its suppliers may be denied their own direct license to use patents relating to these standards (standard essential patents), especially in the field of telecommunications standards such as 3G, 4G or 5G, and that Continental may become dependent on licenses and the conditions under which they are granted to customers. In addition, Continental is subject to efforts by its customers to change contract terms and conditions concerning the participation in disputes regarding alleged infringements of intellectual property rights.
Continental is exposed to risks from legal disputes.
Companies from the Continental Group are involved in a number of legal and arbitration proceedings and could become involved in other such proceedings in the future. These proceedings could involve substantial claims for damages or payments, particularly in the USA. For more information on legal disputes, see Note 38 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
Continental could be unsuccessful in adequately protecting its intellectual property and technical expertise.
Continental’s products and services are highly dependent upon its technological know-how and the scope and limitations of its proprietary rights therein. Continental has obtained or applied for a large number of patents and other industrial property rights that are of considerable importance to its business. The process of obtaining patent protection can be lengthy and expensive. Furthermore, patents may not be granted on currently pending or future applications or may not be of sufficient scope or strength to provide Continental with meaningful protection or commercial advantage. In addition, although there is a presumption that patents are valid, this does not necessarily mean that the patent concerned is effective or that possible patent claims can be enforced to the degree necessary or desired.
A major part of Continental’s know-how and trade secrets is not patented or cannot be protected through industrial property rights. Consequently, there is a risk that certain parts of Continental’s know-how and trade secrets could be transferred to collaboration partners, customers and suppliers, including Continental’s machinery suppliers or plant vendors. This poses a risk that competitors will copy Continental’s know-how without incurring any expenses of their own. Moreover, Continental has concluded a number of license, cross-license, collaboration and development agreements with its customers, competitors and other third parties under which Continental is granted rights to industrial property and/or know-how of such third parties. It is possible that license agreements could be terminated under certain circumstances in the event of the licensing partner’s insolvency or bankruptcy and/or in the event of a change of control in either party, leaving Continental with reduced access to intellectual property rights to commercialize its own technologies.
Continental could become subject to additional burdensome environmental or safety regulations, and new regulations could adversely affect demand for the company’s products and services.
As a corporation that operates worldwide, Continental must observe a large number of different regulatory systems in numerous countries that change frequently and are continuously evolving and becoming more stringent, particularly with respect to the environment, chemicals and hazardous materials, as well as health regulations. This also applies to air, water and soil pollution regulations and to waste legislation, all of which have recently become more stringent through new laws, particularly in the EU and the USA. Moreover, Continental’s sites and operations necessitate various permits and the requirements specified therein must be complied with. In the past, adjusting to new requirements has necessitated investments, and Continental assumes that further investments in this regard will be required in the future.